The Influence of Low Dutch on the English Vocabulary

auteur: E.C. Llewellyn

bron: E.C. Llewellyn, The Influence of Low Dutch on the English Vocabulary. Oxford University Press, Londen 1936  



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DBNL vignet

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The following words are added to their respective sections: -

1. 6. Pensionary (1587), formerly the chief municipal magistrate of a Dutch city, with the function of a legal adviser or speaker (properly Grand Pensionary), the first minister and magistrate of the state of Holland and Zeeland in the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands (1619-1794): English translations of the Dutch titles Pensionaris and Groot Pensionaris.
1. 7. Dell (1567, Harman, Caveat), a young girl of the vagrant class, a wench; ad. Du. del, slut, trollop. A variant is Dill (1627), but perhaps directly ad. e.mod.Du. dille (Hexham).
2. 6. Hornwork (1641, Evelyn, Diary) as a term of fortification is probably a translation of Du. hoornwerk.
2. 7. Pickeer (c. 1645), to maraud, pillage, plunder; to skirmish, reconnoitre; possibly ad. Du. pikéeren (1574), ad. F. picorer, to forage, pillage.
3. 11. Colza (1712), a French name for coleseed; ad. F. colza (earlier colsat), ad. LG, kôlsât (M.Du. coolsaet, Du. koolzaad. Gamene (1703), the common sort of Dutch or Zeeland madder; a corrupted form of Du. gemeen, common. Genappe (1858), the name of a worsted yarn or cord used in the manufacture of braids, fringes, &c.; from Genappe, the name of the town in Belgium where it was originally made. Isinglass (1545, also Isonglas), a substance obtained from the sounds or air-bladders of some fresh-water fishes, esp. the sturgeon; apparently a corruption of obs. Du. huizenblas (Kil. huysenblase), sturgeon's bladder. Messing (1371), a kind of brass; probably borrowed as a term of the Flemish trade; ad. M.Du. messinc, messinge. Mum (1640), a kind of beer originally brewed in Brunswick, and largely imported into England in the 17th and 18th centuries; ad. LG. mumme or Du. mom (older momme). Osnaburg (1545), a kind of coarse linen originally made in the North German town of Osnabrück.
3. 14. Doublejee (1707, also -key, -see, Dubbeltie), a coin worth ten cents or about 2d. English; the various forms are adaptations or corruptions of Du. dubbeltje. Mark marklike (1480), mark for mark, in the same proportion; from M.Du. mark markgelike or LG. mark marklik.
3. 15. Excise (1494), any toll or tax; (1596) spec. ‘a duty
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charged on home goods, either in the process of their manufacture or before their sale to the home consumers’ (Encycl. Brit.); apparently ad. M.Du. excijs, exchij(n)s.
4. 4. Drogher (1756), a West Indian coasting vessel, hence transferred to other slow, clumsy coasting craft; ad. obs. F. drogueur, a ship which fished and dried herring and mackerel (ad. e.mod.Du. drogher, droogher, from droogen, to dry), or directly from Du.
4. 5. Euphroe (1815), a crowfoot dead-eye; ad. Du. juffrouw, juffer, dead-eye, lit. ‘maiden’. Juffer (1677), a piece of timber four or five inches square; ad. Du. juffer in the sense ‘spar, beam, joint’. Ufer (1754), a fir pole or piece of timber from four to seven inches thick and from twenty to forty feet long; ad. Du. juffer, spar.
4. 8. Sea-fardinger (a. 1650), a seafarer; perhaps an alteration of Du. zeevaarder, seafarer, after Eng. passenger or seafaring.
4. 9. Overschippen (1759, once), to transfer goods from one ship to another; ad. Du. overschepen, in the same sense; the form has perhaps been influenced by Eng. ship.
5. 3. Gull (1495), a fish not fully grown, also a kind of gudgeon; probably ad. M.Du. gulle (Du. gul), small codfish.
5. 4. Flue, Flew (1388-9), a drag-net; a fixed net; probably ad. M.Du. vlouwe, vluwe, net.
6. 3. Flench, Flinch, Flense (1814), to cut up or slice the fat from a whale or seal; ad. Du. flensen, to cut into pieces. Flench-gut, Flens-gut (1808), the place on board where the blubber of a whale, cut up in long slices, is stored before barrelling; an adaptation of Du. flensgat, of similar meaning. Meck (1867), a notched staff in a whaleboat on which the harpoon rests; ad. Du. mik, forked stick (M.Du. and MLG. micke).
7. 4. Knoll (1669), a turnip; probably ad. Du. knol (earlier knolle), clod, ball, turnip. Poppering (1592), a variety of pear; named after the Flemish town of Poperinghe.
9. 3. Litmus (1502), a blue colouring matter obtained from various lichens, esp. archil; ad. M.Du. le(e)cmoes, lijcmoes; the c of the Du. word has probably been altered to t from association with the verb lit, to colour, dye, stain. Dr. C.T. Onions has supplied the following reference, which was pointed out to him by Professor G.N. Clark: Skey (Journal of the House of Commons, xi. 487, 494), a cloth-stretching implement; probably ad. Du. schei, transom, tie-piece, in a transferred sense.
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10. 2. Cool-back (1707), a vessel used for cooling the wort in brewing; ad. Du. koelbak, from koel, cool and bak, trough.
13. 3. Scorbut(e) (1597), scurvy; ad. F. scorbut, apparently ad. MLG. schorbuck. Scorbuch, -buicke (1551), scurvy; ad. e.mod.Du. schorbuyck, scheuerbuyck.
13. 5. Mennonite (1565), Mennonist (1645), a member of a sect of Christians which was founded in Friesland by Menno Simons (1492-1559); formed from the name Menno. Predicant (1590), a preacher; spec. a member of a predicant religious order; predikant; ad. F. prédicant or e.mod.Du. predicant. Predikant (1634), a minister of the Dutch Protestant Church, esp. in South Africa; ad. Du. predikant.
13. 6. Glat (1481), smooth; ad. M.Du. glad (glat), smooth. Nicker (1481), a demon or devil; ad. M.Du. nicker, necker. Noker-tree (c. 1481), a walnut tree; adapted from M.Du. or M.Flem. nōkerboom. Copspin (1483), a spider; ad. M.Du. coppespinne, or altered from spincop, which Caxton also uses.
14. 2. Dassy (1882), the Cape daman; ad. Du. dasje, dim. of das. Boomslang (1849), the tree-snake; Du. boomslang, from boom, tree, and slang, snake. Ringhals (1864), a species of cobra, characterized by a ring of colour round the neck; ad. Afrik. ringhals, from Du. ring, ring, and hals, neck. Schaapsteker (1856), a snake of the family Coronellidae; Du. schaapsteker, from schaap, sheep, and steker, stinger. Geelbek (1875-84), a wild duck; Afrik. geelbek, from Du. geel, yellow, and bek, beak. Kabeljou (1838), a South African sea-fish; Afrik. kabeljou, from Du. kabeljauw.
14. 5. Disselboom (1858), the pole of a wagon; Du. disselboom. Rheimpy (1850), rheim; ad. Du. riempje, dim. of reim.
14. 10. Erf (1887), ‘a garden plot, usually containing about half an acre’ (Webster); ad. Du. erf, erve, premises. Schlenter sb. and adj. (1891), of doubtful value, not genuine; a counterfeit; ad. Du. slenter, a trick. Rooinek (1897), a term applied by Boers to Englishmen in South Africa; ad. Afrik. rooie nek, from Du. roode nek, red neck. Sassatje (1833), veal or mutton cutlets curried slightly and cooked on a skewer over the fire; from Malay sisate, minced meat, and Du. dim. suffix -je; the term was, perhaps, introduced by the Malay slaves, whose descendants are the Cape Malays of to-day.
15. 2. Cookie (c. 1730), a small plain bun or cake; ad. Du. koekje, dim. of koek, cake.
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16. 2. Kiezer (1812), a member of the Electoral College in British Guiana which nominates members for the legislative body; ad. Du. kiezer, from kiezen, to choose.
17. Maund (1459), a wicker or other woven basket having a handle or handles; a measure of capacity varying with the locality; OE. mand, mond does not appear to have survived: according to O.E.D., 15th-century maund(e), mand(e) is ad. OF. mande (ad. M.Du. mande); possibly, however, the word is immediately from M.Du. or MLG. mande. Plaque (1875), an ornamental plate or tablet of metal or porcelain; ad. F. plaque, ad. M.Du. plack(e). Pletter (1597) to trim, crush; ad. e.mod.Du. pletteren (Kil. ‘obterere, exculcare’). Ribspare (1654), a cut of meat, esp. of pork, consisting of part of the ribs somewhat closely trimmed; ad. LG. ribbspeer (MLG. ribbespêr). Silvercooper (1796), a kidnapper; ad. Du. zielvercooper, ‘soul seller’, the name given to a crimp. Slampamp (1593), a gallimaufry, a hodge-podge; probably from LG.; cf. MLG. slampamp, ‘ein ekelhaftes Gemenge in Speisen’ (Sch-Lü). Slobbery (1398), characterized by slobber or slobbering; disagreeably wet, slimy, or dirty; probably ad. M.Du. slobberich, slobbrich, sticky, dirty, mixed with dirt. Slobber (14.., Wright, Songs & Carols (Percy Soc.)), to feed in a slabbering or slovenly manner; to wet in a dirty or disagreeable manner; probably from Low Dutch, which has the following forms: M.Du. slobberen, to walk through mud, e.mod.Du. slobberen, ‘ligurire ius tepidum’ (Kil.), Du. slobberen, to eat or work in a slovenly manner; cf. Slabber, p. 202, and Slubber, p. 203.