The Plantin House as a Tourist Attraction1.
It was not only grave and dignified scholars who in past centuries entered the ‘big house’ in the Vrijdagmarkt to negotiate the publication of a book or to engage in profound (or not so profound) conversation over a rummer of wine; or artists and engravers who came to discuss a commission; or fellow-printers - who until 1618, and possibly later, were sent round to the Gulden Passer in the Kammenstraat, where the casks of wine provided for this category of guest were stored:2. long before the Plantin House became a museum it was already attracting tourists, crowned heads as well as ordinary people.
The Golden Compasses in the Vrijdagmarkt and the Kammenstraat both had the distinction of being mentioned and described in the first guide-book for the Netherlands, Ludovico Guicciardini's Descrittione di tutti i Paesi Bassi - but not in the first edition of 1567, published by Plantin's great rival Willem Silvius, who would have been little pleased by such publicity for his competitor. When Plantin published a new edition in 1581, the author inserted in the chapter devoted to Antwerp the following enthusiastic passage: ‘No less excellent, pleasant and remarkable than all that has been mentioned above (apart from other less significant ones in this town) is this splendid printing office, set up separately from the shop in a private dwelling that is perfectly suited to it, by Christophe Plantin, printer to the king: whose
enterprise is worthy of praise and remembrance; and all the more laudable for until now no one has known of or seen a printing office in the whole of Europe where there are more presses, more type and a greater diversity of characters, more cases and other tools fit for such an excellent craft: or in which so many well-versed and exceptional men are to be found employed for large wages and salaries. These men work at revising and correcting books in all the languages (I make no exception), either classical or vernacular, which are used throughout Christendom; in such a way that when everything has been taken into account in this house of the Muses, including the labour employed in printing and attendant activities, expenditure amounts daily to more than three hundred florins of the country, which comes to a hundred and fifty écus; a truly glorious and magnificent fact, adding not so much to the profit and honour of the worthy author of all this but rather to the whole town, in as much as books are sent out from there which are both well printed and correct. These are dispatched in great quantities throughout the world.’1.
It remains open to question whether it was Plantin with his great business acumen who had this advertisement inserted, or whether Guicciardini did it on his own initiative as a favour to his publisher. In either case the enthusiasm was wholly justifiable, and was echoed by the many strangers who visited Antwerp and regularly made their way to the Vrijdagmarkt.
The list of famous and illustrious visitors began in 1579 with no less a person than William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and his wife. Plantin
wrote a poem for the occasion, ‘Le seul divin est perdurable; toute autre chose est perissable’, which was printed in the presence of the exalted guests: ‘Faict et imprimé presents les tresillustres Prince et Princesse d'Orange, venus voir l'Imprimerie de Christophle Plantin, XIIII. jour de Décembre M.D.LXXIX.’1. The only known copy of this poem, together with the Souhait which was associated with it and printed at about the same time, can still be admired in the second Plantinian room of the Museum.2.
The fortunes of war drove William of Orange back to the North and restored Spanish rule to Antwerp. Henceforth the monarchs and princes who visited the officina were related to, or associated in one way or another with the Spanish royal house. The first of these were the Archdukes Albert and Isabella. In December 1599 the pair made their joyous entry into Antwerp, spending several days there. On the sixth day - 16th December 1599 - it was the turn of the Tapissierspand [the building where tapestries were sold] and the Plantin house to be graced with a visit.3. ‘And so that they should not leave out anything that was rare and worth seeing, they went after dinner to the house where is situated the shop which sells all kinds of tapestries in such great quantities that there is usually enough in stock to furnish a whole kingdom. The rest of the day was spent profitably in the printing office of the learned and famous Christophe Plantin, carefully administered by the conscientious and meticulous Jan Moretus, his son-in-law, who in recognition of the honour that he felt was beine afforded him, had run off on one of his presses in the presence of his sovereign lord and lady a sheet printed in capitals which he presented to them on the spot.’4. Like his father-in-law, Jan Moretus had honoured his distinguished visitors with
a specially, dedicated address. This tradition was continued faithfully, for in every documented instance of royal visits there is mention of an address.
In 1631 Maria de' Medici, Louis XIII's scheming mother, fled from France and was cordially received by the Archduchess Isabella. Accompanied by Isabella she visited the principal towns of the Southern Netherlands. Antwerp and the Plantin house were not overlooked.1. Following the family custom, Balthasar I presented both the royal tourists with a loyal greeting composed in French and Latin. The French text for Maria de' Medici is interesting, if only as a curiosity:
A la Reyne Tres-Chrestienne
Mère de Troys Roys les plus grands du monde,
qu'un nuage de dissension eslevé dans le royaume de son fils,
Dieu l'ayant permis pour une meilleure fin,
a mené dans les provinces de son gendre,
pour resiouir et illustrer
avec sa face sereine et Florentine
celle de la Flandre descolorée par les guerres,
brillante des rayons d'une si grande maiesté,
applaudit en tout respect;
luy augure enbref, et la félicité dès à présent
dont elle se verra couronnée au Royaume de son fils
après la pacification des troubles
Le x. septembre de l'an m.dc.xxxi
Balthasar was so proud of his literary labours that he had the four loyal addresses included in the beautifully illustrated work he printed the following year, the Histoire curieuse de tout ce qui c'est passé à l'entrée de la Reyne Mère du Roy Tres-Chrestien dans les villes des Pays-Bas by Jean Puget de la Serre, a courtier of Maria de' Medici. A presentation copy, printed on parchment and magnificently bound, was offered to the queen. Thanks to the efforts of the Permanent Donation Fund for the Antwerp Municipal Library and the Plantin-Moretus Museum, it has been returned at last to its place of origin and is now displayed in the Moretus room.1.
Three years later, on 21st August 1634, it was an Italian prince, Thomas of Savoy, who arrived in the Vrijdagmarkt. This time there was very nearly a hitch: the letters announcing the visit went astray and Balthasar was only informed at the last minute. The traditional address was in jeopardy, but the printer, humanist, and poet proved equal to the situation. As he himself explained in a letter to Philippe Chifflet, one hour in the silence of the night was time enough for him to produce a text of this sort. Thomas of Savoy received an appropriate Latin address, composed according to all the rules of the art; it had even been submitted to the ‘preventive’ censorship of Jean Jacques Chifflet, Philippe's brother, who had examined it to make sure there was nothing in this adulation of an Italian prince which might offend any of the Spanish authorities in Brussels.2.
Eight months later, on 9th April 1635, die Cardinal Infante, Don Ferdinand, Isabella's successor as governor-general of the Spanish Netherlands, took the opportunity afforded by his stay in Antwerp to pay a visit to the Plantinian press. This time posterity is better informed about the visitor's reactions because of an entry in the diary of Philippe Chifflet, who was a courtier as well as a close friend of Balthasar: ‘His Highness, who wished to emulate the praiseworthy curiosity of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, of the Queen Mother, of the King of Poland, a prince at that time, and
of several other great Princes, visited the Plantinian printing office of Master Balthasar Moretus with whom I was lodging; and he saw brought forth in his presence a beautiful inscription printed on a large sheet which Master Moretus presented to him as it came from the press. His Highness took particular pleasure in seeing the compositors assemble the type, insert the punctuation and the spacing and arrange everything on the form; asking questions about the several pleasing and curious points concerned in the full process of this Art. Master Moretus took him through the Printing Office to all parts of his premises, showing him all aspects of his business, which is like a small republic in itself; in one quarter were the correctors, in another the compositors, in the next the founders and repairers of types, and finally the wood engravers who most appropriately had just finished making a full-length likeness of His Highness in armour - and so well done that it was admired by all the courtiers... At this point one may describe Master Moretus's establishment which consists usually of 40 workmen paid punctually every Saturday; these workmen are compositors, [press]pullers or printers, proof-readers, collators, engravers both in wood and copper, then the founders and sometimes others who are employed to make matrices with the ancient punches.’1.
The prince was delighted with what he saw, but no more so than Balthasar. The printer alluded to this visit repeatedly in his letters, with a rather
childlike pride, and sent copies of his address to various friends and relations.1.
This does not exhaust the list of exalted callers, but less is known about other such visits. Let it suffice to say that hardly a single governor-general of the Spanish Netherlands omitted to call at the Plantinian house when making official or semi-official visits to Antwerp. Besides Albert and Isabella and Don Ferdinand, the masters of the Golden Compasses entertained Don Francisco de Mello (1641), the Marquis Castel Rodrigo (1646) and Prince Leopold William (1647). Polish royalty visited the house with great regularity - Prince Vladislav in 1624, Prince Casimir in 1635 and Queen Louisa Maria Gonzaga in 1646. Queen Christina of Sweden too visited it in 1654.2.
In 1668 it was another Italian prince, Cosimo III de' Medici, who looked over the Officina Plantiniana. This descendant of a famous line of bankers simply noted dryly in his diary that the typographical equipment there must be worth 300,000 scudi. An almost complete darkness descends after Cosimo de' Medici's visit. No doubt other distinguished sightseers wandered through the patrician residence in the Vrijdagmarkt but, with three notable
exceptions, nothing is known of such visits between 1668 and 1876, when the thread can be picked up again.
These three exceptions are revealed by typical Plantinian addresses. ‘Sa Majesté la reine des Français [the wife of King Louis-Philippe], MM. le roi et la reine des Belges et LL. AA. RR. les princesses françaises Marie et Clémentine honorent en ce moment, 2 heures après-midi, 28 Octobre 1834, de leur Auguste présence l'ancienne Archi-Typographie Plantinienne dont l'établissement remonte à l'an M.D.LVI. Anvers, de l'Archi-Typographie Plantinienne, chez Albert Moretus’ [Her Majesty the Queen of France, Their Majesties the King and Queen of the Belgians and Their Royal Highnesses the Princesses Marie and Clémentine of France, honouring with their August presence at this moment, 2 o'clock in the afternoon of 28th October 1834, the ancient Plantinian Press, the foundation of which dates back to the year 1556. Antwerp, in the Plantinian Press of Albert Moretus] is how the text of the first of these addresses runs.1. The second, in almost the same words, shows that a few months later, at one o'clock in the afternoon of 14th July 1835 to be exact, King Leopold I and his wife returned, this time accompanied by the Prince of Linange. The visit must have made a great impression on the Queen of the Belgians for a third address indicates that less than a year later, on 3rd May 1836 (at eleven o'clock in the morning), Her Majesty, accompanied by her sister Marie, once more favoured the Officina Plantiniana with her presence.2.
Crowned heads and high-ranking dignitaries were not the only ones who were given the opportunity of admiring the famous press from the inside during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The big house was always open to the curious. There was no traveller of inquiring mind who did not find his way to the Vrijdagmarkt when passing through Antwerp. Many of them wrote down their impressions in diaries and travel journals.3. Most of these travellers confined themselves to brief exclamations of admiration: ‘It
actually has eleven presses, and Balthasar Moretus is now in charge’ wrote the German theologian Calixtus in 1641. ‘The magnificent Plantinian printing office [which] has twelve presses and at least one hundred founts of type’ was the comment of the Englishman Brown in 1668. In 1677 the young German Apronius saw ‘founts of silver’ as well as more than ten presses.
Some travellers expressed their admiration in greater detail. These descriptions are not models of their kind, but the German Hartmann in 1657, the Englishman Skippon, and the Frenchman Balthasar de Monconys in 1663 reflect quite aptly what visitors found most striking in those days - and this seems to have been much the same as that which impresses the present-day tourist.
The words of Monconys can be quoted by way of illustration: ‘We have also been in Plantin's printing office, which retains the name of its founder, although it is one Moretus, a descendant of his son-in-law, who directs it. It is quite a large house, consisting of four wings enclosing an open quadrangle. In the middle of this is a pretty garden, the walls of which are most pleasantly covered by vines, like almost all the walls in this town, which goes very well with brickwork. In the lower part of one of these wings is the printing shop, where twelve presses are constantly at work. The rest of the house, except for part of the ground floor which serves as living quarters, is filled with copies of each book that they have printed and some other books besides.’
This interest in the Plantinian house was shared by sightseers of more humble rank. In 1643 Balthasar II Moretus was asked by Hendrik Barentsen, a Catholic friend who was a bookseller in Holland, if he would print an unspecified tract for him (probably a political or religious lampoon aimed at the North). Balthasar II was not very enthusiastic about the commission and tried to put it off indefinitely, pointing out that many Dutchmen visited his press in the summer:1. ‘... for I have since been thinking that if it must be printed in complete secrecy, this cannot be done in my printing office, where every day (chiefly in the summer, about the time of the coming fair) many strangers, Dutchmen too, come to look around...’2.
(102) Opposite: Address dedicated to the Prince and Princess of Orange, printed in their presence on 14th December 1579, when they visited Plantin's premises. Only one copy of it is known.
(103) Another loyal address, specially printed on 28th October 1834 at 2 o'clock in the afternoon in the presence of Marie-Amélie, Queen of France, consort to King Louis-Philippe, who visited the officina in the company of Leopold I, King of the Belgians and his wife, Queen Louise-Marie (daughter of the French royal pair) and the French princesses Marie and Clémentine. The only known copies are in the Plantin-Moretus Museum.
The facts available about such visits show that they can be dated to the second half of the seventeenth century, that is to say the period when the bookshop was in a room facing the courtyard (the present proof-readers' room).1. The two things are probably connected: to reach the shop the public had to pass through the main gateway and across the courtyard, and thus had the opportunity of peering through the windows of ground-floor rooms or putting their heads round open doors. Mention of visitors of this sort stopped abruptly when the bookshop was moved to the Heilig Geeststraat: after that the privilege of entering the courtyard and viewing the officina was extended only to invited guests, as before 1640.
The fact that measures had to be taken at quite an early date to prevent quarrels among the staff over the conducting of strangers round the press - and the sharing of the tips which these people liked to give - suggests, however, that even before 1640 the number of those invited guests through the years can hardly have been small. On 12th March 1633 the ‘chapel’ or association in which the Plantinian workpeople were organized made the following ruling: ‘... [it] is decreed that anyone who shows strangers round any part of the premises shall be obliged (if he is so requested) to declare on oath what gratuity he has received, of which he shall retain three stuivers, he penalty [for infringement of this rule] being forfeiture of 25 stuivers’.2.
A few months earlier a similar kind of provision had been made for the sharing of tips received from people who had their names set and printed on the Plantinian presses as a memento of their visit: ‘At the same time [i.e. 22nd December 1632] it is decreed that if any person approaches a workman to have his name or any other matter printed, the compositor and the printer shall each retain three stuivers of any gratuity given and the remainder shall go to the chapel.’3.
It can be seen that in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Plantin house was important to what would now be termed tourism in Antwerp. It is less certain whether this was true for the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The wealthy, and now also noble Moretuses give the impression of having been much more selective in these centuries. The last masters were in fact reputed to be veritably Cerberean, keeping out the tourists as determinedly as their forebears had welcomed and entertained them. In 1874, when die negotiations began which were to lead to the acquisition of the Gulden Passer by the City of Antwerp, there were few outside the family circle who knew what the old Plantinian house looked like from the inside or what treasures it harboured.1.
Cf. L. Voet, ‘Het Plantijnse huis als toeristisch centrum’ in Antwerpen
, 1, 1955, pp. 12-18.
An agreement of 1614 between Balthasar I and Jan II, who was in charge of book sales, stipulated that the former would each year pay his brother as his share of the general expenses the price of one aam
of Rhenish wine (50 fl., plus the duty etc. - a total of 63 fl. 4 st.), ‘par respect des traictements des libraires lesquels se font d'ordinaire en la boutique’ (Arch. 101, folio 55).
Original French text: ‘Moins excellence, agreable et merveilleuse que tout ce que dessus (outre d'autres moindres estans en ceste ville) n'est celle magnifique Imprimerie faite à part de la Boutique, en un corps de logis particulier, et tout propre à cecy, par Christophle Plantin Imprimeur du Roy: l'entreprise duquel est digne de loz et memoire; d'autant qu'on ne sçait point iusqu'à present, on en voye de pareille en toute l'Europe, et où il y ayt plus de presses, plus de lettres, et diversité de characteres, plus de casses, et autres instrumentz propres à un art si excellent: et où tant d'hommes rares, et bien versez là entretenuz, à grandz gaiges et salaires, soyent trouvez, lesquelz travaillent à revoir et
corriger les livres en toutes langues (ie n'en excepte aucune) soit literales ou vulgaires desquelles on use par toute la Chrestienté: de sorte que le tout calculé en ceste maison des Muses, et pour le labeur de l'impression, et de ce qui en depend, on emploie tous les iours plus de trois cens florins du pays, qui viennent à la concurrence de cent cinquante escuz: chose (sans mentir) illustre et royale, qui redonde non tant au profit et homieur de l'autheur louable d'icelle, ains encore de toute la ville: entant que des livres sortants et bien correctz et bien imprimez de ceste maison, on en faict courir grande quantité par tout le monde.’
See plate 102. Cf. also p. 97.
M. Rooses and M. Sabbe, Les rimes de Christophe Plantin
, 1922, nos. XI and XII; also published in Suppl. Corr.
, nos. 270 and 272. The Souhait
is reproduced in L. Voet, ‘Het Plantijnse huis als toeristisch centrum’, p. 13.
D. Roggen, ‘Bezoek van Albert en Isabella aau de Plantijnsche drukkerij ter gelegenheid van hun blijde intrede in Antwerpen (December 1599)’ in De Gulden Passer
, 5, 1927, pp. 22-25. The text also appears in M. de Villerniont, L'infante Isabella, gouvernante des Pays-Bas
, I, 1912, pp. 449 sqq.
Original French text: ‘Et pour ne rien obmettre de tout ce qui estoit de rare a voir, apres le disne ils furent en la maison ou se trouve le magasin de toute sorte de tapisseries en si grande quantite qu'il y en a dordinaire pour assortir un royaume entier. Le reste de la jouniee fut utilement passe dans l'imprimerie du docte et renomme
Christoffle Plantin, curieusement administrée pour lors par le soigneux et exact Jean Moretus son gendre, lequel en reconnaissance de l'honneur dont il se sentoit oblige fit sortir de l'une de ses presses en la presence de ses Princes un escrit en lettres capitales qu'il leur presenta sur le champ.’
H. de Backer, ‘Marie de Médicis dans les Pays-Bas et sa visite à l'imprimerie Plantin-Moretus’ in Sept études publiées à l'occasion du quatrième centenaire... Christophe Plantin
, 1920, pp. 75-84. Cf. also pp. 206-207.
Cf. the description of this binding in Anvers, ville de Plantin et de Rubens. Catalogue de l'exposition...Bibliothèque nationale
, 1954, no. 338. Reproduced in De Backer, op. cit.
Concerning de la Serre's publication, cf. Rooses, Musée
, p. 293, and the catalogue quoted above, nos. 339-343.
M. Sabbe, ‘De Chifflet's met den prins-cardinaal en prins Thomas in de Plantijnsche Drukkerij 1635’ in De Gulden Passer
, 2, 1924, pp. 34-44; also included in Uit het Plantijnsche huis
, 1924, pp. 176-182.
Original French text: ‘Son Altesse désireux d'imiter la louable curiosité des Archiducs Albert et Isabelle, de la Reyne-Mère, du Roy de Pologne, prince pour lors, et de plusieurs autres grands Princes, fut visiter l'Imprimerie Plantinienne du Sieur Balthasar Moretus, chez qui j'estois logé; et vit-il présenter en sa présence une belle inscription en grande feuille estendue, que le Sieur Balthasar Moretus luy presenta et à tous ceux de sa cour, en mesme temps qu'on les levoit de la presse. S.A. prit un plesir singulier à veoir les
compositeurs assambler les caractères, entrelarder les distinctions et les espaces et arranger le tout sur la forme, s'enquérant de plusieurs belles curiositez qui concernent le collecte de cet Art. Le Sieur Moretus le pourmena de l'Imprimerie par tous les quartiers de son logis, et luy fit veoir toute son oeconomie qui ressemble à une petite république; en un quartier estoient les correcteurs, en un autre les assembleurs, deça les fondeurs et répareurs, et enfin les tailleurs en bois qui fort à propos, venoient de parachever l'image de Son Altesse de son long, armé en guerrier, et si bien faite qu'elle fut admirée par tous ceux de la Cour... Icy se pourra descrire l'oeconomie du Sieur Moretus, qui est ordinairement de 40 ouvriers, payez punctuellement tous les samedis, qui sont les compositeurs, tireurs ou imprimeurs, correcteurs, assembleurs, graveurs tant en bois qu'en taille douce, puis les fondeurs et quelquefois d'autres pour faire des matrices avec les poincons anciens.’ (Published by Sabbe in the article, quoted in preceding note.)
Cf. M. Sabbe's essay on this visit quoted on p. 400, n. 2.
A concise biography of Plantin and the early Moretuses, compiled in the time of Balthasar II, lists the eminent visitors to the Plantin House (Arch. 98, p. 42): ‘Despuis plusieurs années cette Imprimerie Plantinienne a Anvers a esté honnorée de la presence et liberalité de plusieurs souvrains et aultres grand seigneurs et princes et gouverneurs du Paysbas, qui ont daigné de la venir veoir comme en l'an 1601 les Sermes
Archiducqs Albert et Isabelle, 1624 Vladislaus, alors Prince et despuis Roy de Poulogne, 1631 Marie de Medecis Royne Mere de France et Gaston frere unique du Roy de France, 1634 Prince Thomas de Savoye, 1635 Ferdinand Cardinal Infant d'Espagne et Gouverneur du Paysbas et le prince Casimirus a présent Roy de Poulogne, 1641 Don Francisco de Mello Gouverneur des Paysbas, 1646 Louise Gonsague Royne de Poulogne, marquis de Castel Rodrigo Gouverneur des Paysbas, 1647 Sermus
Leopoldus Guilielmus Archiducque d'Austrice et Gouverneur des Paysbas, 1654 Christine Royne de Suede, Louis de Bourbon Prince de Condé. Auxquels Souverains et Seigneurs les susdits administrateurs de la ditte Imprimerie ont offert quelques inscriptions, qu'ils leur avoyent dressées, et l'imprimoyent en leur presence.’ In
1651 Balthasar II Moretus asked for permission to set up a private chapel in the Golden Compasses. One of the points he made in justifying his request was the number of exalted persons who had already been received in the house. Mentioned by name (but without any indication of date) were: Vladislaus and Casimir, kings of Poland; Maria de' Medici; Maria Gonzaga, Queen of Poland; Albert and Isabella; the Cardinal Infante Ferdinand; Leopold, Archduke of Austria; Francis Thomas of Savoy; and the Duke of Orléans, Prince of Condé (Arch. 104, pp. 597-599; concerning Balthasar II's petition, cf. p. 290).
Prints of these addresses can be seen in Room 14 (the Press), and also in Folio Varia I and II. For the visit of 3rd May 1836, cf. also L. Degeorge, La maison Plantin à Anvers
, 2nd ed., 1878, p. 24.
J.A. Goris, Lof van Antwerpen. Hoe reizigers Antwerpen zagen van de XVe tot de XXe eeuw
, 1940, pp. 89-93. Cf. the commentary and summary by H.F. Bouchery in ‘Plantiniana’ in De Gulden Passer
, 18, 1940, pp. 173-176.
M. Sabbe, ‘Vondel, Balthasar II Moretus, Leonardus Marius en Hendrik Barentsen’ in Uit het Plantijnsche huis
, 1924, p. 95.
Original Dutch text: ‘... want hebbe t'sedert oock bedacht, dat rnits heel secretelyck gedruckt rnoet wesen, het selve in myn druckerye niet wel en sal connen gheschieden, alwaer dagelyckx (principalyck inden somer, ende omtrent de aenstaende kermisse) veel vremdelinghen oock hollandsche deselve komen besichtigen.’
M. Sabbe, ‘De Plantijnsche werkstede. Arbeidsregeling, tucht en maatschappelijke voorzorg in de oude Antwerpsche drukkerij’ in Verslagen en Mededeelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamsche Academic voor Taal- en Letterkunde
, 1935, ordonnantie L, art. 52 (p. 676): ‘... is geordonneert dat iemant die vremt volck leijt om te wijsen achter oft voor, sal gehouden zijn (dies versocht sijnde) op eet te verclaren wat drinckgelt hij ontvangen heeft, waer af hij sal genieten drij stuijvers op de verbeurte van 25 stuijvers.’
, ord, L, art. 46 (p. 675): ‘Ten selve tijde is geordonneert bij soo verre datter eenige lieden iemant aenspreken om hunnen naem gedruckt te hebben oft iet anders, soo sal den setter en den drucker van het drinckgelt dat sij geven elck drij stuyvers genieten ende de rest sal voor de capel blijven.’
Cf. ‘La Maison Plantin-Moretus’ in Le Bibliophile belge
, 9, 1874, pp. 230-238.